xHistory :: 69 :: Concept of Time  
xTable of Contents:  
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xDaily Time Lines  
Group Presentation: Several days later: Children count to see
how many lines have been placed to represent number of days which have
passed. The discussion goes on to the names of the days: today, yesterday and tomorrow. The date may also be discussed. The pages of a calendar are examined and compared with other calendar pages. One page signifies one day despite its size or shape. Today's page is pasted on the time line and an anecdote is written below. Several calendars may be started and used to record daily atmospheric temperature, school events or schedules. Each morning, one more page is pasted on. Several days later, compare calendars and remind them once again that the day is the same, but the unit for the different calendars is different. Age: 6 years old. Direct aim: Indirect
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xThe Whole Year  
After seeing time represented one day at a time, let's see what a year looks like. One long calendar strip is rolled out. The children read the names of the days of the week and the names of the months. Note; If the child at this point has not learned the names of the months and the number of months in the year, s/he should study them with this and other language materials. Other calendars, the smallest last, are rolled out to be examined and compared, and to show the child that despite the different sizes, each shows the same amount of time: a whole year. The measurement used for each unit (day) must be maintained throughout. "A Year and its Parts" The whole year and its parts is laid out. The labels "One whole year  twelve months" is placed to the right. The whole metal inset also representing ONE is placed to the left. The strip is folded to make two equal parts. The parts are then counted. The calendar strips for 6 months are compared to the two equal parts. The children are shown that the two equal parts equal ONE Whole. The label "1/2 year  6 months" is placed on the right and the 1/2 metal inset is placed to the left of the strip. The presentation continues with "1/3 year  4 months", "1/4 year  three months, a season", 1/6 year  two months" and "1/12 year  one month". A three period lesson follows this work as a review session. Direct Aims: Indirect Aim: Preparation for historical time lines. Previous work: The child should have had previous work with fractions. The seasons work should be done parallel with this work. [top]  
xPersonal Time Lines  
Group presentation: Show the empty time line. "This time line can represent how long you have lived or the lives of your family. You can decide how much time you want each unit to be. Why don't you start with a time line for your parent(s)?." The child will see that counting out the days or months of a year will be too long for a parent and will probably settle into one unit per year. Exercises: 1. My family The child can cut out time lines to represent him/herself and one for each member of the family along a straight line at the top of the page. These are placed vertically down the paper. They can write each name at the top of each time line. The child's own name is written in color. Since each strip is one year, make a darker line to mark in each ten years to make counting easier. The child's time line should be to the left. Have parents next, brothers and sisters and then a grandparent. Have child turn the time line horizontally. The straight line that all the TL's sit on is now the present and it is possible to see how much longer the grandparents and parents have lived than the children, etc. 2. My family by age Now paste each family member in chronological order. Now
you can see who is oldest, youngest, etc. 3. The history of my birthdays The teacher prepares a time line representing at least seven years with the names of the months from January to December written in. Now the unit of time becomes a month."During what month were you born? Each year, you have a birthday on the same day of the same month. Put a star on your month for every year." Now the child can count how many months until her/his birthday. 4. A history of the
child Direct aim: to understand the concept of a time line as a representation of events that have take place; to give the child a sense of the history of themselves in relationship with their family. Indirect aim: To prepare for historical time lines. Extensions: This lesson should be given to the child at age 6. A good parallel exercise is for second to make a family tree and grandparent interview. Third can write an autobiography. [top]  
xThe Year 200_  
Presentation: 1. "What year is this? 200_. " A child
gets the numeral cards and corresponding quantity in golden bead
material. The quantity is counted. The cards are arranged and the
numeral is read. "We want to represent this quantity in a line. For each
one thousand cube, we can use a long chain of one thousand." The
children lay the two chains out (perhaps in a field) and count to 2000
by decades and puts the arrow 'this year' at the correct point. "But
this is too long. Let's try another way." A chain of 100 is laid out.
"We'll let each bead represent 10 years." The child counts by 10's and
100's until reaching the end of the chain. "This chain now represents
1000. We'll put this cube at the end to remind us. Another 100 chain is
placed out and the children count by 10's until they reach 19902000.
They place an arrow there with the numerical cards of this year. What happened 200_ years ago? Now the chains are replaced with the time line strips. The green which is labeled B.C.E and B.C. stands for hope. The red which is labeled C.E. and A.D. stands for love. The star or flame can be at the two century ones. "Now we need to find out where to put the 'this year' arrow on this time line.On this time line, instead of representing one year at a time like we did with the thousand chain and 10 years at a time (or decades) like the hundred chains, each unit on this time line will represent a century, or 100 years." The 1st card in red is put down,"This is the 1st century in the Common Era or A.D." Then the 1st card in green is put down. " This is the 1st century Before the Common Era or B.C." The child puts down 2nd century C.E. and 2nd Century B.C.E., etc. up to the 20th century C.E. and B.C.E. Both ends of the time line should be arrows to show that time goes on in each direction. "When we write the numerals for the centuries, we can use Roman Numerals". Turn the cards over and the Roman Numerals are printed on them. (Extension: There can be another whole lesson with craft sticks making the Roman Numerals) The cards are turned over and read again. Use three period lesson for any confusion of names. Age: 7 years. Aim : To orient the child to historical time lines and dates Extensions for older children: study of other calendars [top]  
xThe Clock  Part I  
Presentation: 1. Introduction "Think of all the kinds of clocks or watches there are. The kind of clock with hands is called a face clock. The clock is round like a face. But no matter what kind of clock we are looking at, it is still measuring the same hour and minute of the day in our own time zone. There are 24 hours in a day. 12 hours for day and 12 hours for night". Look at the clock in front of you. Use the hour hand to count out the hours as it moves around the clock from 112. "But I told you there were 24 hours! The clock goes around 2 times to make a day." The hands are placed on the 12 to represent noon. "What hour does this arrow point to ? What happens at 12:00? Twelve o'clock is called 'noon' After 'noon' there are 12 hours more. At the next 12:00, it is the middle of the night, 'midnight'. There are 12 hours before noon and 12 hours afternoon. Noon usually represents the sun at its zenith, at the highest point of the day. (Noon comes from the Latin prefix non meaning nine. It is supposed to be nine hours from sunrise, which would be about 3:00). 2. The hours "Let's see what time
you do the things that are important to you. What time do you get up?
7:00? This is 7:00".(or the child sets the clock to the correct
time) 3. The halfhours 4. Minutes The hands show 3:00. How can I show 5 minutes after 3:00? I can count the little minutes.......or I can count by 5's like we did when we learned half past. 5 minutes past 3 is written 3:05. Children can make a book of one hour of minutes counting by 5's. 5. Quarters Show a clock with example 8:15 Then you can teach 10 to the hour, 5 minutes to, etc. Extensions: Use rubber stamp to make booklets of quarter to, quarter after, etc. [top]  
xHistory & Grammar  Three Fundamental Tenses  
Description of chart: Below the title are three headings: Past, Present and Future with a red circle above each representing verbs beneath each. Below the circles is a single purple triangle representing pronoun. The rest of the chart consists of three lists of words corresponding to each title. Presentation: The use of each of the words is discussed in relation to a pronoun in the first person singular. "I ate yesterday. " That has already happened; it happened in the past. "I eat today." That is happening in the present. I will eat tomorrow. Tomorrow has not yet come. That will happen in the future. The three words Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow are written on the chart. When adding new words, begin with the present, and figure out the past and future in relation to the present. Some suggestions: before now afterwards or then
Extensions: Make a group of
cards for children to work with :
Age: 7 Aim: To learn the three fundamental tenses. Note: This chart is presented parallel to the next materials in history. [top]  
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