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MONTESSORI TEACHER ALBUMS - Children's House (3-6) - Culture

  • GEOGRAPHY
    • Sandpaper Globe
    • Continent Globe
    • Jigsaw Puzzle Map of the Hemispheres
    • Animals of the World
    • Jigsaw Puzzle Map of the Child's Own Continent
    • Jigsaw Puzzle Map of Child's Own Country
    • Introduction of the Three Elements
    • Land and Water Forms
    • Land and Water Form Cards
    • Outline Maps
    • Land and Water Definitions
    • Flags
    • Classified Cards of Flags and Parts of a Flag
    • List of Countries and Corresponding Continent Outline Map
  • HISTORY
    • Daily Calendar
    • Seasons
    • Linear Time Lines
    • Summary: Calendar/Weather Calendar
    • Events Chart
    • Sequence Cards
    • Birthday Celebration
    • Time Line of Child's Life
    • History Stories
    • Clock
  • BIOLOGY
    • Zoology
      • Preparing the Outdoor Environment
      • Preparing the Indoor Environment
      • Nature Table
      • Classified Nomenclature Cards
      • Card Story Lessons
      • Animals of the World
      • Vertebrate and Invertebrate
      • Classes of Animals Folder
      • Animal Sorting Game
      • The Parts of the Animal and their Definitions
      • Mystery Animal Cards
      • Living Things Reproduce
    • Botany
      • Preparing the outdoor environment
      • Preparing the indoor environment
      • Nature Table
      • Importance of the Sun
      • Card Story Lessons
      • Classified Cards
      • Parts of the Tree
      • Botany Cabinet
      • Definitions of the Parts of the Tree
      • Parts of the Leaf, Flower, Root, Kinds of Roots, Leaf Margins and Venation and their Definitions
      • Gathering Seeds
  • SCIENCE
    • The Human Body
    • Use of a Magnifying Glass
    • Use of a Magnet
    • Feeling Box
    • Surprise Bag
    • Sink and Float
    • Living and Non-Living Things
    • Raising Water Level with Washers
    • Mixing colors
    • Copper Cleaning
    • Plant Stems
    • Wheels and Belts
    • Weather
    • Evaporation
    • Condensation


GEOGRAPHY

SANDPAPER GLOBE (individual presentation)

Purpose: To give an impression of the roundness of the earth. To identify the two elements of the earth's surface: land and water

Materials: Sandpaper Globe

Presentation: Invite a child to join you. Show the child where the sandpaper globe is kept and give the name. Show the child how to carry the globe, two hands on the base. Take the globe to a table and place it with the support toward the back. Say, "This is the Sandpaper Globe. It represents the planet Earth." Steady the globe with one hand, feel the surface with the other hand. Explore the globe with the full hand, moving it from the top of the globe to the bottom in a slightly outward motion, thus rotating the globe. Convey a lightness of touch. On the second rotation give the language. Say, "land" when you feel the sandpaper and "water" when you feel the smooth surface. Invite the child to feel the globe. Ask them to show you "land" and "water". Make sure to point out the land that is at the bottom of the globe.

Point of Interest: Note the amount of water.

Age: 3 years

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CONTINENT GLOBE (individual presentation)

Purpose: To teach the names of the large land masses and water bodies.

Material: Continent Globe.

Presentation: Invite a child to join you and show him where the globe is kept. Have the child carry the globe with two hands to a table. Say, "This is the Continent Globe." Use one hand to support the globe and rotate it with the fingers of the other hand. Admire it visually. Do one full rotation and on the second rotation give the language, "continent" for the colored portions and "ocean" for the blue portions. "This big piece of land is called a continent. This big body of water is called an ocean." Invite the child to have a turn. Ask him to show you "continent" and "ocean".

Age: 3 years

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JIGSAW PUZZLE MAP OF THE HEMISPHERES (individual presentation)

Material: Continent globe (blue hollow ball with the continents drawn in black ink & cut in half) tray, scissors, jigsaw puzzle map of the hemispheres, picture folder #1

Presentation: Transformation from globe to map Invite a group of children to join you. Ask one child to lay out a mat and another to bring the painted globe over to the mat. Bring over the prepared ball on a tray. State, "With a globe you can only see the side that is facing you. I'm going to show you how you can see the whole earth at one time." Compare the prepared ball and the globe, they look alike. The ball has been previously cut in half, from pole to pole through the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, leaving the continents complete (except Antarctica) and taped together with clear tape. Remove the tape, placing the two halves on the mat side by side. "Now we can see both halves of the world at once." If possible, make small cuts at the edge of each half so that it can be flattened to show how maps were made.

Introduction of the Jigsaw Puzzle Map: Take them to the map cabinet and give them the name, "This is the map cabinet and these are the jigsaw puzzle maps". Show the children how to remove and carry the maps with both hands. Bring the map to the mat. "This is the jigsaw puzzle map of the world. We can see two hemispheres, two halves at once." Compare and connect the map and the globe using the continents. Put away the globe and the prepared ball. Say that the material is very fragile and should be handled gently. Point to the knob and show how to remove the inset carefully. Place the inset of a continent on the mat. Ask each child to remove a continent and place it on the mat. After all continents have been removed, show how to replace an inset. Be sure to position the piece above its appropriate place and check visually. Replace it gently. Invite the children to replace the remaining continents. Remember to use the terminology "continent" frequently. Have the children put away the materials when they are finished.

Exercise 1: As in presentation, the children may build the world on the mat.

Exercise 2: Introduce the names of the continents. Remove three continents of contrasting color and shape, include child's own continent. Give a three-period lesson. On following days, continue until the name of each continent is known. Remember to review previously learned names. Introduce the names of the oceans in the same manner.

Exercise 3: Invite a group of children who know the names of the continents to join you. Ask a child to lay out a mat, another to get the jigsaw puzzle map of the hemispheres, and you get Picture Folder 1. Ask one child to remove and name their favourite continent. Isolate the continent on the mat. Tell the children you have some pictures of this continent. Remove the matching folder, note the color coding. Take out one picture to which the children will relate. Discuss the picture with the children. Encourage them to share what they see with you. Place the picture beside the continent. Repeat for five or six pictures. When finished show how carefully the pictures are put into the folder. Replace the continent in the map. Either repeat the procedure for another continent then or repeat on another day.

Exercise 4: After the children have experienced the pictures for all the continents, have two children remove two continents. Have another child remove the corresponding folders and mix up the pictures. The children would look through the pictures and decide to which continent they belong. To check if they are correct, the name of each continent is on the back of the picture. When finished, replace the pictures in their appropriate folders and return the material.

Exercise 5: Show how to trace around the puzzle insets to make a map. color in the map. An alternative to coloring is to use colored paper or fabrics.

Exercise 6: When the child is reading, introduce the printed labels. The child may also label his own map.

Purpose: To give the impression of the shapes and locations of the continents. To give the names of the continents and oceans. To introduce the culture of other lands.

Age: 3+ years

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ANIMALS OF THE WORLD (small group presentation)

Material: Jigsaw puzzle map of the World. Three models of typical animals of each continent.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you at a mat. Bring the basket of animals to the mat. Discover which animals the children can identify. For the remaining animals, give a three period lesson naming the animals. Use three or four animals at a time. Give a little information about each animal which interrelates zoology and geography, and also animals and man. Information should concern the animals habitat and anything special regarding the animal i.e., penguins do not fly. Continue according to the interest of the children. Replace materials.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Continue until all animal names are learned. Review previous work on animals.

Exercise 2: After the children have been introduced to the animals, invite them to set out a mat, the map of the hemispheres and the basket of animals. Isolate an animal on the mat. Ask the children to identify the animal. Remind them of a special aspect and add where the animal lives. Invite a child to remove the continent from the map. another child then places the animal beside the isolated continent. Continue in the same manner with other animals according to the interest of the children.

Exercise 3: Introduce card stories and pictures of animals. Discuss these pictures with the child, paying special attention to how each animal is equipped for its own particular environment. Keep a good selection of books in the classroom or direct the children to the library according to their interest. When they have reached the reading stage they can also place printed slips under the appropriate pictures.

Purpose: To introduce the child to a wide variety of animals and teach the appropriate names. To relate animals to the continents on which they live. To stimulate interest in animals and ecology.

Age: 3+ years

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JIGSAW PUZZLE MAP OF THE CHILD'S OWN CONTINENT (small group presentation)

Material: Jigsaw puzzle map of North America and Picture Folder 2.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you. Go to the map cabinet and say, "We are going to get the map of your continent". Remove the map and carry it to a mat. Remind the children their continent is North America. "Let us get the globe and find North America." Have a child locate North America on the globe. Go back to the map and review with the children how to remove a piece of the puzzle carefully. For some of the large insets, hold them by the knob and slip the other hand under to further stabilize the puzzle inset. Have the children remove all the insets. Carefully replace them into the map. Give the names of the countries in a three period lesson. Include an interesting fact regarding each country to which the children can relate. Continue according to children's interest.

Exercise 1: As in presentation, continue until the children know the names of the countries and review the names of the oceans. Encourage the children to build the continent on the mat.

Exercise 2: After the children know the names of the countries and the oceans, tell them you have some pictures of the different countries. Ask the children to select a country for which they would like to see pictures. Remove a picture and engage the child in conversation. Repeat for another country according to the children's interest.

Exercise 3: Trace around the puzzle insets to make a map. color in the map or use colored paper or fabrics.

Exercise 4: When the child is reading, introduce the printed labels. The child may also label his own map.

Age: 4+ years (after the child knows the continents)

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JIGSAW PUZZLE MAP OF CHILD'S OWN COUNTRY (small group presentation)

Material: Jigsaw puzzle map of the United States and Picture Folder 3.

Presentation: Invite a small ground of children to join you. Go to the map cabinet and remove the map of the United States. State, "This is the map of the United States". Take the map to a mat. Identify the oceans which surround the country. As with the previous maps, take out the insets with the children and then return the insets to the map. Give the names of the states in a three-period lesson.

Exercise 1: As in presentation until the children know all the names of the states.

Exercise 2: Introduce Picture Folder 3 in the same manner as Folders 1 and 2. Encourage discussion.

Exercise 3: Trace around the puzzle insets to make a map. color in the map or use colored paper or fabrics.

Exercise 4: When the child is reading introduce the printed labels. The child may also label his own map.

Exercise 5: Proceed to introduce the other jigsaw puzzle maps in the same manner. Child may select the map he would like to do next.

Exercise 6: Introduce the mottoes of each state, also: flags, flora, crests, fauna.

Purpose: To give the names of the states, etc. of the child's own country, and the oceans which surround it. To give the sensorial impression of the shapes of the states. To look more deeply into the country's culture. Exercise 5 To give the names of the countries within a particular continent. To give the sensorial impression of the shapes of these countries.

Age: 4+ years (after child knows the names of the countries within his own continent)

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INTRODUCTION OF THE THREE ELEMENTS (small group presentation)

Material: A jar of soil, a jar of water, a jar of air. Pictures showing land, water and air. Tray.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to a mat. Bring the tray of jars and pictures to the mat. Invite each child to look and feel the contents of each jar. They then look at each picture and determine which element is shown. The pictures can be sorted in rows below each jar. Children can check their work by the use of control dots on the back of each picture.

Exercise 1: As in presentation.

Purpose: To make the children aware of the three elements.

Age: 3+ years

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LAND AND WATER FORMS (small group presentation)

Material: Ten land and water models prepared in trays, waterproof and with a pouring lip. Each unit should be similar in form to its opposite number. They are island and lake, cape and bay, peninsula and gulf, strait and isthmus, archipelago and system of lakes. One small tray with a jug, a small sponge or towel, and bucket. Box of objects, tray and towel.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you. Show them where the land and water forms are kept. Start with the lake and island. Have a child carry each with two hands and have the other child carry the small tray with the jug. Take the material to a table. One child fills the jug with water. "We are going to pour water to show the geographical land and water forms." Pick up the jug and pour enough water into the tray to make the land or water form visible. "This is a ... ." Give a brief definition and discuss real examples. Invite a child to pour water into the other form. "This is a ... ." Give a brief definition and discuss real examples. Proceed with a three period lesson. To clean up: note spout and pour water into bucket for each form. Empty bucket at sink. Dry out all containers and replace materials.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Continue to introduce land and water forms two at a time as above.

Exercise 2: Have the children pour water into two geographical forms. Review names. Introduce box of objects. Remove objects one at a time and name. Discuss the objects with the children and decide if they belong on land or in water and place appropriately.

Exercise 3: Invite the children to make their own land and water forms.

Exercise 4: Look for real examples of the geographical forms in atlases, magazines and books.

Purpose: To give sensorial impression of major land and water forms. To give geography vocabulary. To observe the forms as they exist in reality.

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LAND AND WATER FORM CARDS (small group presentation)

Material: One set of cards of ten major geographical land and water forms. Ten land and water models.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you. Have one child layout a mat, then have the children bring over all the land and water forms. The teacher shows the children where the Land and Water Form cards are kept and then brings them to the mat. Review the names and give a brief definition of each model. The teacher holds the cards. Show the children one card and ask a child which form it matches. Child places the card beside the form. Repeat for the other forms. Ask the children to name all the geographical forms they remember by pointing to the cards. Give a three period lesson for all the cards they do not know. Present three at a time, isolated at the bottom of the mat. Continue according to the children's interest. Replace materials when finished.

Exercise 1 As in presentation, continue until children know all the forms using the cards only. Review cards previously learned.

Exercise 2: Children can draw their own land and water forms. They may label their drawing if appropriate and/or include the flora and fauna.

Purpose: To associate the three dimensional form with the pure concept presented on the card.

Age: 4+ years

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LAND AND WATER FORM DEFINITIONS (small group presentation)

An ISLAND is a piece of land surrounded by water.

A LAKE is a body of water surrounded by land.

A BAY is an inlet of the sea surrounded mostly by land.

A CAPE is a piece of land jutting into a body of water beyond the rest of the coast line.

A PENINSULA is a piece of land jutting out into the water and is almost surrounded by water.

A GULF is an arm of the sea extending far into the land.

An ISTHMUS is a narrow strip of land which joins larger portions of land.

A STRAIT is a narrow waterway connecting two larger bodies of water.

An ARCHIPELAGO is a group of islands.

A SYSTEM OF LAKES is a formation of several lakes grouped together. OUTLINE MAPS

Material: Outline maps large enough to show major land and water forms. Use one map for each set of forms. Two colored pencils brown or green for land, blue for water.

Presentation: Invite a child to join you. show the child where the outline maps are located. Start with the map of the world. Use one map for each land or water form. Decide which land or water form you are going to look for, i.e. island, and select the appropriate pencil crayon. Say that you are looking for all the major/large examples of islands. Child locates first example. Show how to color it in carefully. Child locates next example and colors it in. Have him point out the other examples which he will color in. Child proceeds for as long as he wishes. When finished, label the map according to its geographical form, i.e. Islands.

Exercise 1: As in presentation, repeat the process for all geographical forms.

Exercise 2: Child may use maps of continents or his own country, as long as he knows the appropriate language.

Purpose: Identifying major land and water forms world-wide.

Age: 4.5-5 years

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LAND AND WATER DEFINITIONS (individual presentation)

Material: Classified cards of the land and water forms and printed labels. Control booklet. One set of cards with whole definitions and the key word outlined in red. One set of cards with the key word cut out.

Presentation: Bring classified cards, booklet and printed labels to a mat or table with a small group of children who are able to read and have learned the geographical forms. Read the booklet to the children and put it aside. Have the children set out the cards in an orderly fashion. Isolate a printed label and invite a child to read and place it underneath the corresponding card. Continue until all labels are matched. Children can check their work with the booklet.

Exercise 1: As in presentation.

Exercise 2: In the same manner, introduce the paragraph definitions which the children can match to the cards.

Exercise 3: In the same manner, introduce the second set of definitions which have the key word missing. Here the children will match the definition to the cards and replace the key word.

Purpose: Reading exercise.

Age: 4+ years

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FLAGS (small group presentation)

Material: Flags of the World. Sets for each continent, with flag stand and individual bases.

Presentation: Show the child where the flags are kept. Tell the child these are the flags of different countries. Select a flag according to the child's interest, i.e., national flag, or the child may choose. Remove flag from its stand. Name the flag. Ask the child to walk naturally on the line with the flag held upright. The child may now carry the flag any time he wishes. Encourage the child to use other flags and learn their names.

Exercise 1: Once the child knows a few flags, approach him and ask him to tell you the names of his two favourite flags. Say, "I'll show you how to carry two flags on the line". Remove the two flags from their stands and hold one in each hand, carry one flag higher than the other. Walk on the line as before. Invite the child to carry the flags while walking on the line.

Purpose: Controlled movement. Introduction to names of the countries.

Age: 2+ years

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CLASSIFIED CARDS OF FLAGS AND PARTS OF A FLAG (individual or small group presentation)

Material: Two sets of cards of flags of the world; one set with label attached, the second set with matching labels. Booklet with the parts of a flag. One set of cards which isolate the parts of the flag and printed labels.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you. Show the children where the cards are located. Bring them to a mat. Sort the cards into two groups by having the children identify those they know and those they do not know. Give a three period lesson for the ones they need to learn, three at a time. They may wish to bring the appropriate flags to the mat and match them to the cards they know. They may also locate the countries in the jigsaw puzzle maps or in an atlas. When finished replace all materials.

Exercise 1: As in presentation, continue to present cards in the form of a three period lesson.

Exercise 2: When the child is reading introduce the printed labels.

Exercise 3: Introduce the parts of a flag orally. Invite each child to select a flag. Bring the cards to a mat or a table. Have them identify the parts on their flags. Introduce the cards and sort as above. Give needed language in the form of a three period lesson. At the reading stage, you may introduce the printed labels, definition booklets and definition cards in the same manner as the Land and Water Definitions or refer to Reading Classification in the Language Manual.

Purpose: Vocabulary enrichment. Reading practice.

Age: 4+ years

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NORTH AMERICA (small group presentation)

Canada Greenland United States of America Mexico Guatemala Belize Honduras El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Cuba Jamaica Haiti Dominican Republic

SOUTH AMERICA (small group presentation)

Columbia Venezuela Guyana Suriname French Guinea Equador Brazil Peru Bolivia Paraquay Chile Argentina Uraguay

EUROPE (small group presentation)

Portugal Spain France Andorra Monaco Iceland Ireland United Kingdom Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Switzerland Italy San Marino Norway Sweden Finland Denmark Germany Austria Poland Czech Republic Slovakia Hungary Albania Greece Turkey Bulgaria Romania Liechtenstein Yugoslavia Slovenia Bosnia & Herzegovnia Croatia Macedonia Russia Estonia Latvia Lithuania Belarus Ukraine Armenia Moldova Georgia Azerbaijan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Tajikistan Kyrgyzstan Kazakhstan

ASIA (small group presentation)

Oman Turkey Syria Lebanon Israel Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Kuwait Iran Yemen Arab Republic People Democratic Republic of Yemen Mongolia Afghanistan Pakistan India Nepal Japan China Bhutan Bangladesh Burma Thailand Laos Vietnam Cambodia Malaysia Indonesia New Guinea Sarawak Philippines South Korea North Korea

AFRICA (small group presentation)

Morocco Algeria Tunisia Libya Egypt Western Sahara Mauritania Mali Niger Senegal Guinea-Bissau Guinea Sierra Leone Liberia Ivory Coast Burkina Faso Ghana Togo Benin Nigeria Chad Sudan Cameroon Central African Republic Ethiopia Djibouti Somalia Gabon Congo Zaire Uganda Kenya Rwanda Tanzania Angola Zambia Malawi Mozambique Namibia Botswana Zimbabwe South Africa Swaziland Lesotho Madagascar Gambia Burundi Rio Muni Swaziland Lesotho Eritrea

AUSTRALIA (small group presentation)

Territories: 1. Western Australia 2. Northern Territory 3. South Australia 4. Queensland 5. New South Wales 6. Victoria

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HISTORY

DAILY CALENDAR

Material: A three ring binder with removable pages.

Presentation: Tell the children this is a calendar and we will use it to record daily events in the classroom. Also use it as a countdown for exciting upcoming events. Have the date written on the top of the page and a fresh page for each day. Either the teacher or a child can record events. Each morning have a child turn over the page. On Friday call the children together and state that many things happened during the week. Remove the pages and lay them out in sequence saying the days of the week. Invite the children to read the pages out aloud. Discuss the events which have occurred and what might happen next. Place the pages back in the binder. On Mondays you can record what happened on Saturdays or Sundays. This helps to establish a cycle of time.

Purpose: To chart daily events. To give an impression of the passage of time.

Age: 3+ years

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SEASONS (individual and collective presentation)

Material: Time line for the seasons with a symbol of each beside it's name , i.e., AUTUMN: leaf turning color. Selection of pictures depicting the seasons.

Presentation: Bring the materials to a mat with the children. Unroll the time line and note the seasons, discussing the particular characteristics of each. Make a circle with the line. Look at each picture and determine which season it depicts. Lay the card by its corresponding season on the time line. Children can check their work by the use of control dots on the back of each picture.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Discuss changes in seasons as they occur and reinforce with stories and poems.

Purpose: To note the sequence in the passage of time with an emphasis on the cyclical pattern.

Age: 4+ years

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LINEAR TIME LINES (small group presentation)

Material: Time lines for the days of the week in one color, and the months of the year, in colors symbolic of the seasons. A set of loose labels for each timeline in a box or envelope.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children who are able to read to join you. Show them where the labels and linear time lines are kept. Take materials to a mat. Unroll the line, laying it out in a horizontal fashion so that the blank side is face up. Children read through the labels. Then ask what is the first month/day. Place the appropriate label in the first space to the left. Repeat placing the months/days in order, assisting as necessary. Children can check their work by looking on the back. Place out the months/days saying them out aloud. When finished have the children put away their work.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Later on invite the children to make a circle with the line. When the children pace out the months/day they will experience its cyclical pattern.

Purpose: To emphasize sequence in passage of time and the cyclic pattern.

Age: 4-5 years

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SUMMARY CALENDAR/WEATHER CALENDAR (small group presentation)

Material: Large calendar with loose labels for the date and pictures of weather conditions.

Presentation: A board with positions for the day, month, numeral, year and a pictorial representation of the weather. The construction of the board allows for the labels to be placed in the appropriate position and is hung in a visible area, accessible to all children. A child who is able to read can place the date on the board. A child who cannot read can look through the pictures, select the one which best represents the day and place it on the calendar. If the weather changes, the picture should also be changed.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. You may add printed labels to the weather pictures.

Exercise 2: The older children can keep a detailed log of the temperature, wind, cloud patterns, etc. for each day. They can see how weather cools down in the winter and warms up in the summer. They can look back and see the coldest day, the largest snowfall recorded, etc. The emphasis is on the changing pattern.

Purpose: To record changes in daily and seasonal weather conditions.

Age: 3+ years

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EVENTS CHART (individual or small group presentation)

Material: Events board divided in half by a line and labelled "Past" and "Present". Child brings in cut-outs from magazines and newspapers.

Presentation: Encourage parents to show their child magazines or newspapers. If the child seems interested in a news story, have the child cut out the corresponding picture. The child would bring the picture to school and informally tell the story to the teacher and a few classmates. "Let us put that story on the events chart and you can tell the story to more children." Pin the story under "Present", on the right side of the board. The next day invite the child to go to the board with you. Remind the child it happened yesterday so let us move the story to the left side of the board under the "Past". Bring in your own current events for the chart in case the children have forgotten to do so.

Exercise 1: As in presentation.

Purpose: To give an impression of the passage of time.

Age: 3+ years

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SEQUENCE CARDS (individual or small group presentation)

Material: Related assortment of cards which can be arranged in sequence. "My day" pictures.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you on a mat. Show the children where the sequence cards are kept. Lay out the cards from one set. Ask the children which card do they think comes first. Place the card to the top left of the mat. Continue placing the cards in sequence. Engage the children in conversation, discuss why they choose their particular order. Encourage them to work with other sequence cards and discuss the story the pictures tell. When finished have the children replace the materials.

Exercise 1: As in presentation.

Purpose: To give the impression of the sequence of time.

Age: 3+ years

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BIRTHDAY CELEBRATIONS (individual or small group presentation)

Material: Candle, painted globe, months of the year labels.

Presentation: Invite all the children to sit in a circle around a mat. Place a candle on the mat to represent the sun. The child whose birthday it is carries the painted globe. Explain the earth orbits the sun and each orbit takes a whole year. The child walks around the sun once for each year he has been on earth. Discuss major events and abilities gained in the child's life as he walks around the sun. He may bring in one or two pictures for each year.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Make the child's birthday special. Recognize its importance in a manner appropriate to the individual child, i.e, sing Happy Birthday, read them a special story, give a special lesson, etc. Parents may be willing to bring in a treat which the child can share with his classmates. For a child who is reading you can introduce the printed labels of the months of the year and arrange them around the candle.

Purpose: To help the child realize the passage of time and how it relates to his personal growth and development.

Age: 2+ years

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TIME LINE OF CHILD'S LIFE (collective presentation)

Material: A wide strip of paper. Photographs of main events of different periods of the child's life to date. Child makes an envelope large enough to contain photographs. Writing paper.

Presentation: Ask the parents for photographs from birth to the present age of the child. Assure them that you will take good care of the photographs. They may include other important people in the child's life. Ask the parents to write the child's age on the back of each picture. Ask the child to make a special envelope for his pictures. Unroll the paper. Fold it in half lengthwise and draw a line down the centre. Divide the paper in equal measures to represent the child's age. Write zero to the numeral representing the child's age along the length of the paper. Say, "This will be the story of your life. We have some photos that your mom sent us." Establish the order with the child by discussing each picture. Lay the pictures beside the time line in order. When the child is finished, fold the paper and place with the photographs in the envelope.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. The child can lay out his pictures in order and tell the history of his life to another child.

Exercise 2: At another time he can write his story on a separate piece of paper. Have one sheet for each photo. Keep the stories in a separate envelope.

Exercise 3: Repeat as above for other family members.

Purpose: Linear, visual presentation of passage of time.

Age: 4+ years

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HISTORY STORIES (individual presentation)

Material: Pictures of famous people, i.e., musicians, artists, explorers, inventors, doctors, authors, athletes, etc. A corresponding written story or book.

Presentation: Present a picture and give a short interesting little story about the person including any interesting facts.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Follow-up information can be attained from books in the classroom or a visit to the library. Card stories and booklets can be made up.

Purpose: To appreciate the contribution various people make on our lives.

Age: 4+ years

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THE CLOCK (small group presentation)

Material: The clock, movable hands and loose numerals in a box. A series of cards, set of corresponding labels and stand.

Presentation: Introduce the clock to the child, showing him where it is kept. Bring the materials to a table. Show the child how to put the numbers in order on the clock face. Begin with one, select it from the box and place it on the clock. Invite the child to continue. Explain that these numbers show us the hours. With the child, demonstrate how the hands of the clock go around. When the child is finished he replaces the materials on the shelf.

Exercise 1: Child places the numerals on the clock. Introduce the short hand. "This is the short hand. When the short hand points to a numeral, it tells us what hour it is." Point the short hand to the 'one' and say "one o'clock". Continue in the same manner to twelve. Invite the child to tell the time in this way. Proceed with the three period lesson.

Exercise 2: At this point the child should be able to skip count by five. Child places the numerals on the clock. Begin at twelve, explain that between the numeral twelve and the numeral one is a time span of five minutes. Then, with the child, skip count by five around the clock, from five to sixty. Introduce the long hand. "We have sixty minutes in an hour. This long hand tells us how many minutes before or after the hour we are referring to." Show that the short hand only moves a short distance in an hour, from one numeral to the next. The long hand goes all the way around the clock, covering sixty minutes. Go over the time now using both hands on the clock. Proceed with a three period lesson.

Exercise 3: The clock game, using the cards for all of the hours. Show the clock faces to the child one at a time, have the child identify the time. Mix up the cards. The child places the clock faces on the stand and matches the appropriate label to the face. Have him check his work when finished. Encourage the child to draw some clock faces and label them. When the child knows his fractions you can introduce half past, quarter past, quarter to, etc.

Purpose: To help the child to tell the time.

Age: 5 - 6 years

Individual

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BIOLOGY

Zoology

PREPARING THE OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT

Material: Bird feeder, bird bath and bird house.

Presentation: Observing birds can be very enjoyable. Birds can be attracted by establishing a variety of feeders. (Refer to the Practical Life Manual.) A bird bath offers an interesting opportunity to watch birds. Take care to keep it clean and change the water daily. You may wish to set up some bird houses. These may even be built with the children's assistance. Depending on your environment, you may put out salt licks in the winter and a variety of feed to attract other forms of wildlife. When you go out on nature walks look for any tracks. Insects provide a great source of study. Look for habitats, under rocks, leaves, in the bark of trees, etc. Show the children how to behave in an outdoor setting. Show them how to respect and care for their environment.

Purpose: To attract and study wildlife in the outdoor environment.

Age: 3+ years

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PREPARING THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

Material: Pet cages, tanks, terraria.

Presentation: Animals can be brought into the classroom permanently or temporarily. Ensure that no child is allergic to animals. Provide and prepare a proper living environment. Feeding and caring for animals provide attractive practical life exercises. Observing what and how the animals eat can be very interesting. Encourage the children to observe how the animal moves. It is important to establish appropriate ways to handle the animals and any other routines which ensure the safety of the animal and the children. It is very exciting to watch a life cycle develop i.e., a frog or a meal worm. Use the resources available to you. Many people will be willing to bring animals to your school. In addition, trips to the zoo can be very informative. If you choose to keep animals within the classroom, suitable arrangements must be made for their care at weekends and holidays.

Purpose: To encourage the children to establish respect for other living creatures. To develop a caring attitude towards animals, birds, fish. To observe living creatures and attend to their needs.

Age: 2+ years

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NATURE TABLE

Material: A table. A magnifying glass/hand lens kept permanently on the table. Objects which are or have been a part of our living world, i.e., shells, pine cones, feathers, nests, fossil, bark, sheep's wool, etc.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to the nature table. Introduce the objects to the children one at a time. Show the children how to hold the objects carefully when they are examining them. Provide simple and interesting information about each item. We have a magnifying glass to assist us. Only a few items are displayed on the nature table at any one time. They should be changed frequently to maintain the children's interest.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Encourage the children to bring in their own objects for display. Include labels for the children who are reading.

Purpose: To stimulate an interest in nature in the children. To provide for and promote exploration of specimens found in our living world.

Age: 2+ years

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CLASSIFIED NOMENCLATURE CARDS (small group presentation)

Material: Sets of classified cards for each class of vertebrate animals with the name written on the back of the card. The classification would be varied, i.e., Wild Animals, Domestic Animals, Birds, Herbivores, Carnivores, etc. Corresponding sets of reading cards.

Presentation: These cards are presented in the same way as other classified cards: establish the ones which are known and give a three period lesson for those which need to be learned. Begin with animals the children have had experience with, i.e., domestic animals, zoo animals, farm animals, etc. Always provide a little information regarding each animal. Draw attention to features which will assist later classification, i.e., hair on the mammal, feathers on the bird, sharp teeth of the carnivore, etc. The use of classified nomenclature cards can extend for a long time within the classroom, as the classifications can become more detailed and require more knowledge.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. When the children are reading, introduce the printed labels.

Purpose: To teach vocabulary To prepare for subsequent classification.

Age: 2+ years

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CARD STORY LESSONS (small group presentation)

Material: Mounted pictures showing facets of an animal's life history with information printed on the back.

Presentation: Refer to the Language Manual for the presentation of a card story. Follow the interest of the children and build upon their experiences. When appropriate introduce the idea that life occurs in a series of events, a cycle. Begin with a simple life cycle, one which may be familiar to the children, i.e. egg, chick, hen. Show change as a part of life's growth and development.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Encourage the children to draw and write stories concerning animals. Eventually introduce the notion of metamorphosis. Keep a good selection of books on animals in the classroom.

Purpose: To introduce the concept of a life cycle.

Age: 3+ years

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ANIMALS OF THE WORLD (small group presentation)

Material: Three-dimensional animal models. Hemisphere map.

Presentation: Refer to Animals of the World write up in Geography section.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Encourage the children to make their own models from clay or plasticine and draw pictures of the animals.

Purpose: To introduce the child to a wide variety of animals and learn the appropriate names. To relate animals to the continents on which they live. To stimulate interest in animals and ecology.

Age: 3+ years

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VERTEBRATE AND INVERTEBRATE (small group presentation)

Material: Vertebral column model. Set of pictures of vertebrates and invertebrates. Box for sorting with two compartments labelled Vertebrate and Invertebrate.

Presentation: Introduce the spinal cord to a small group of children. Note that the back bone is made up of many little bones called vertebrae. In the centre of the bones is what is called the spinal cord. The soft discs are between the bones so that they do not rub together. Show the children where their backbone is and have them feel it. Show the movement of the column and encourage the children to move in different ways. Say, "You have a backbone, you are a vertebrate. Animals without a backbone are called invertebrates". Introduce the set of cards to the child and have them identify the animals. Help them sort the pictures into the appropriate categories by prompting the child's observations. Note the tails of the vertebrate animals as an extension of their backbone. When finished the children can check their work by the coding on the back.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. The children enjoy looking at skeletal models. In addition, there are now cards with skeleton overlays for a variety of animals.

Purpose: To identify animals with vertebral columns and animals without vertebral columns.

Age: 4+ years

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CLASSES OF ANIMALS FOLDER (small group presentation)

Material: A folder or box divided to hold pictures of the five classes of vertebrates. These are mounted on cards and laminated. The name of the animal and some relevant information is printed on the back for story writing and reading and they are coded by class (fish, amphibian, reptiles, bird and mammal).

Presentation: The initial stage of this presentation is to provide the children experience with a live animal for each class of vertebrate. Bring the folder to a mat, inviting a small group of children to join you. Begin with mammals, selecting an animal which the children know. Encourage them to talk about their experience of the particular animal. Repeat for a few more pictures of mammals. Encourage discussion which is drawn from the children's observations. Use the classification name "mammal" and frequently refer to the general characteristics. At some point introduce the notion of reproduction. Continue according to the interest of the child.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. In the same manner introduce fish, birds, reptiles and amphibians. Encourage the children to compare and contrast two classes of vertebrates, then three, four and finally all five.

Age: 4+ years

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ANIMAL SORTING GAME (small group presentation)

Material: Set of pictures of the five animal classes and a matching box for each for sorting. Cards are coded on the back for control.

Presentation: Bring the pictures and boxes to a mat, inviting a small group of children to join you. The pictures are mixed in one box and the other five empty boxes are set out across the top of the mat with the names of each class visible. Note, the boxes may be color coded for the children who are not yet reading. The children sort through the pictures and place the animals in their appropriate boxes according to classification. The children can check their work by looking at the color coding on the back of the cards. (Cards may also be sorted into columns.)

Exercise 1: As in presentation.

Purpose: To sort the vertebral animals by their zoological classification.

Age: 4+ years

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THE PARTS OF THE ANIMAL AND THEIR DEFINITIONS (small group presentation)

Material: A set of cards showing the parts of the body of each vertebrate class. The part is colored red in each case. Control booklet, one set of cards with the whole definition and the key word outlined in red. One set of cards with the key word cut out. One set of large pictures, one blank, one with labels (control) for each vertebrate class and one invertebrate class. One set of labels for each blank picture.

Presentation: After the children have had a good deal of experience with the five classes of animals, you may introduce the parts of the animals. Again, begin with the mammal since it is the most familiar. Present the cards in the same manner as other classified cards. Establish the language which is known and give a three period lesson for the language to be learned. Encourage the children to relate the parts of the animal to their own bodies. At the reading stage, you may introduce the printed labels, definition booklets and definition cards in the same manner as the Land and Water Definitions or refer to Reading Classification in the Language Manual.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. The children may work with the other animal classes. Encourage the children to make their own diagrams and label them, if appropriate.

Exercise 2: Introduce the large pictures. Present any new terminology. The child can read the labels and match them to the appropriate parts. The child can check his work with the control charts. Introduce the invertebrate example. Review what an invertebrate is and discuss examples. Present the new terminology.

Purpose: To draw attention to the parts of the main vertebrates. To introduce a large invertebrate class (insects).

Age: 4-4+ years

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MYSTERY ANIMAL CARDS (small group presentation)

Material: One set of cards with a picture of each vertebrate represented. One set of clue cards (control on the back) and one set of labels.

Presentation: At a mat with a small group of children lay out a picture of each class of vertebrate (i.e., a frog, fish, bird, dog, salamander). Show the cards with the clues printed on them to the children. Select one. Read the first clue: "I live on land." Look at the five pictures. Eliminate the animal(s) that do not satisfy the statement, i.e., since the fish does not live on land, turn over the picture. Read the next clue. "I lay hard eggs." Turn over the ones that don't lay hard eggs. Continue until the children guess the mystery animal. Place the clue card under the picture and find the appropriate label to place below, i.e., "I am a bird.". Continue reading the clue cards until all the animals are identified. The children can check their work by the control on the back. Change the pictures often and, if necessary, the clues. Keep the clinching clue as the last statement.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Encourage the children to read the clues to one another.

Purpose: To confirm the child's knowledge of the zoological classifications (vertebrate).

Age: 5+ years

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LIVING THINGS REPRODUCE (small group presentation)

Material: One set of control cards showing adult form and young of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. One set of cards of adult animal and one set of cards of their young. One set of matching labels.

Presentation: At a table or mat introduce the cards to the child. Invite him to identify and lay out all the adult pictures. The child identifies the babies individually and matches them to their parents. The child reads the labels and matches them to their pictures. The child can use the control cards to check his work. The work parallels the work done in 'Word Study' (refer to Language Manual).

Exercise 1: As in presentation. You may also wish to present life cycles with labels that correspond to each stage. Include animals which metamorphose.

Purpose: To help the child realize that all living things reproduce. To be able to recognize the young and the adult of a species. To show different ways that living things reproduce.

Age: 5+ years

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BOTANY

PREPARING THE OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT

Materials: Tools for digging, hoeing, planting, raking, weeding, watering, harvesting and composting.

Presentation: If possible establish a garden in the outdoor environment. This garden should be beautiful and functional. Children enjoy eating their produce. Children can help prepare the ground by digging and hoeing, then planting. They can also maintain the garden by weeding, watering and eventually harvesting any crops. Plants may be started inside and then later replanted outside. In the fall, raking is a good activity. Maintaining a compost helps to promote the idea of not wasting. In addition, you can plant in order to attract animals and birds. This will allow the children an opportunity to observe the animals feeding. Take nature walks which emphasize a sensorial experience for the children. Encourage the children to find their specimens from the ground so as not to harm a living sample. Take time to explore and share with the children the living world around them which will help instill respect and interest in plant life.

Purpose: To introduce activities which direct the child's attention toward plant life. To raise the child's awareness of plants, their needs and their importance to the earth and to us.

Age: 3+ years

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PREPARING THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

Material: Choice of plants Tools for the care and maintenance of plants and flowers. Equipment for making products with plants and flowers.

Presentation A: Everyday life activities: watering, misting, removing dead leaves and flowers, washing leaves. Your choice of plants is important, consider the amount of light the classroom receives. Start with a few plants and expand the number with success. Choose plants which are interesting for different reasons, i.e., flowering, non-flowering, different leaf shapes, edible, non-edible. Early in the year give a lesson on how to care for each plant. Removing dead leaves and washing leaves are interesting exercises. You may also make up a card for each plant which includes the following information: its name, where it was originally grown/came from, its watering and care needs and any interesting facts concerning the plant.

Presentation B: Rooting, potting and repotting, plant propagation. Repotting a plant can be a very nice small group activity. Plant propagation can be very interesting, i.e., start with seeds or a sprouting bulb. The more ways of propagation you show the children the better it is for their understanding. Books on plants provide further information for the children. Encourage children to make a booklet for themselves, drawing a picture of what they did at each step.

Presentation C: Flower arranging, pressing and mounting specimens, making sachets. Flower arranging is a further way to enjoy plants. Refer to the write up found in the Practical Life Manual. A plant press can be made of layers of cardboard and newspaper. The children could make their own press or you may have a commercial one they can all share. The children can identify the various leaf shapes and create booklets. In addition, children can make cards from mounted pressed flowers and greenery. Children enjoy making sachets of pot pourri with dried flowers.

Presentation D: Food Preparation Introduce plants on a sensorial level with an emphasis on taste. Include fruits and vegetables as part of the snack table. Fresh juice squeezed by hand is always popular. Discuss what part of the plant is edible, i.e., leaf, root, etc. Nutmeg or cinnamon can be grated and used in cooking or taken home. Planting a fruit or vegetable and then eating the produce is a great project. An herb garden can provide many activities. Sprouts are also fun to grow and tasty. In addition, you may wish to explore the importance of smell to taste. Remember, what you are trying to give the children is a total experience with plants.

Purpose: To introduce the children to the care of living plants. On an informal level, to introduce our use of plants, our dependency on plants for food and aesthetic reasons. To stimulate interest in plant life.

Age: 3+ years

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NATURE TABLE

Material: Refer to Nature Table write-up: Zoology.

Presentation: Refer to Nature Table write-up: Zoology.

Purpose: To stimulate an interest in nature in the children. To provide for and promote exploration of specimens found in our living world.

Age: 2+ years

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IMPORTANCE OF THE SUN (small group presentation)

Story: Without energy from the Sun, our Earth would be a cold and lifeless planet. Planet Earth receives only a tiny portion of the Sun's energy. But it is enough to give our planet light and warmth and life. All the energy we use on Earth comes from the Sun even such sources of energy as oil, coal and water power.

Activity: 1. Take two ordinary plants that are of the same type. Keeping them in identical pots with the same kind of soil, give each the same amount of water.

Keep one in sunlight and one in shade.

Compare the growth and appearance of the plants over the course of several months.

2. Make a sundial. Push a stick into modelling clay and stand it on a sheet of paper in a sunny place. Use a ruler and a pencil to mark on the paper the places where the shadow falls at different times of the day.

Did you know? From Earth the sun appears to travel across the sky between sunrise and sunset. But it is really earth that is moving, not the sun! We have night when our part of the Earth is turned away from the sun's light. We have day when our part of the Earth is turned towards the sun's light. Earth is surrounded by a layer of air called the atmosphere which shields us from the sun's burning rays. We should never sit in the sun without protecting our skin. Sunburn is very dangerous. The sun is a star. Stars are like people they are born, live for a while and when they are very old they die. We should never look directly at the sun not even when wearing sunglasses.

The rays of the sun are very strong and could damage your eyes or even cause blindness.

Age: 2+ years

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CARD STORY LESSONS

Material: Plants in the classroom. Card story/care cards.

Presentation: Begin with the plant itself. Provide the children with a great deal of sensorial experience with plants. After the children have been introduced to plants at different stages, propagation and the care of individual plant you may introduce the card stories. These card stories concern the plant's life cycle or deal with the care of a particular plant. They may include information regarding our use of the plant and, if applicable, which part is edible. Refer to the Language Manual for the presentation of a card story.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Encourage children to write and/or draw stories of their own.

Purpose: To further explore the life cycle of a plant and its needs.

Age: 3+ years

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CLASSIFIED CARDS (small group presentation)

Material: Sets of cards of trees/wild flowers of North America with loose labels and the control on the back of the card.

Presentation: First take the children outside and find as many trees and plants as possible in their natural habitat. After the children have been introduced to the real examples, invite a small group of children to a mat. Introduce the cards to the children. Invite them to discover the ones they know. Present the ones they need to learn, three at a time, in the form of a three period lesson.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Introduce books on trees and flowers to the children. When the children are reading, introduce the printed labels.

Purpose: To classify the plants and trees that are present in the child's environment.

Age: 4+ years

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PARTS OF THE TREE (small group presentation)

Material: Nomenclature cards.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you outside. Look at different trees and informally talk about trees. Compare the tree to the child's body, the child's skin is like the bark, the arms are like the branches, the trunk is the body, etc. After the children have experienced trees, give the lesson of the parts of the tree using the nomenclature cards. Present the cards in the same manner as other classified cards. Establish the language which is known and give a three period lesson for the language to be learned.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. In the same manner present parts of a plant. Encourage the children to draw their own diagrams.

Exercise 2: Show the children how to do bark rubbings. In the spring experience the movement of the sap, listen to it with a stethoscope, observe the collection of sap, taste maple syrup, etc.

Purpose: To introduce the parts of the plant/tree.

Age: 4+ years

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BOTANY CABINET (small group presentation)

Material: Refer to the Sensorial Manual.

Presentation: Refer to the Sensorial Manual for the presentation of the Botany Cabinet. It is important that the child should have had a good deal of sensorial experience with trees/plants and a variety of real leaf shapes.

Exercise 1: As in presentation.

Exercise 2: Show how to trace the shapes and color them. An alternative would be to use colored paper. Encourage the child to make a booklet of their shapes and label them, if appropriate.

Exercise 3: Collect a variety of leaves with the children. Help the children sort the leaves according to their shapes using the botany cabinet as a guide.

Purpose: To introduce the child to the classification of leaf shapes.

Age: 4+ years

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DEFINITIONS OF THE PARTS OF THE TREE (individual and small group presentation)

Material: Classified cards of the parts of the tree and printed labels. Control booklet. One set of cards with whole definitions and the key word outlined in red. One set of cards with the key word cut out.

Presentation: Bring the classified cards, booklet and printed labels to a mat or table with a small group of children who are able to read and have learned the parts of the tree. Read the booklet to the children and put it aside. Have the children set out the cards in an orderly fashion. Isolate a printed label and invite a child to read and place it underneath the corresponding card. Continue until all labels are matched. children can check their work with the booklet.

Exercise 1: As in presentation.

Exercise 2: In the same manner, introduce the paragraph definitions which the children can match to the cards.

Exercise 3: In the same manner, introduce the second set of definitions which have the key word missing. Here the children will match the definition to the cards and replace the key word.

Purpose: Reading exercise.

Age: 4+

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PARTS OF THE LEAF, FLOWER, ROOT, KINDS OF ROOTS,
LEAF MARGINS AND VENATION AND THEIR DEFINITIONS
(small group presentation)

Material: Nomenclature cards.

Presentation: NOTE: We started with the whole, the plant, and worked down into the parts. Each time we give greater detail. As always, at this stage you would begin with a real specimen. After identifying the parts using a real specimen, you may follow through with classified cards. Introduce the cards to the children. Establish the language which is known and give a three period lesson for the language to be learned. At the reading stage, you may introduce the printed labels, definition booklets and definition cards (if available) in the same manner as the Land and Water Definitions.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Encourage the children to make their own diagrams and label them, if appropriate. Leaf rubbings are an enjoyable and informative activity for the children.

Purpose: To further expand the child's knowledge of the parts of the plant.

Age: 4+ years

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GATHERING SEEDS (small group presentation)

Material: Assorted seed and nuts with loose labels. One set of classified cards.

Presentation: Gather seeds and seed pods and bring them into the classroom. If possible, have the children assist you in this. Invite a small group of children to a mat. Show them how to sensorially explore the seeds one at a time. Discuss each kind of seed, include its name, where it comes from on the plant, how it falls or travels, etc. With the children, determine the seeds' shape, size and texture.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Encourage the children to sort the seeds according to shape, size, how they travel, etc. When the children are reading, introduce the printed labels.

Exercise 2: After the children have experienced a variety of seeds you may wish to introduce a set of classified cards of seeds.

Purpose: To give the child the experience of various seeds.

Age: 4 - 5 years

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SCIENCE

THE HUMAN BODY

Material: Classified cards of the parts of the body with matching labels, with the control written on the back. Blank charts: one for the parts of the body; one for the parts of the head; arrow labels; and control charts for each.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you at a mat. Begin with the rhyme/song "Head and Shoulders". Continue by having the children identify other parts of the body relating them to their own bodies. Encourage discussion. Explore how the different parts of the body move, i.e., foot, waist, knee, etc... Bring the classified cards to the mat. Have the children identify the cards they know, sorting the cards into two piles. Give a three-period lesson for the ones they need to learn, three cards at a time. Replace materials when finished.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. When the child is reading introduce the printed labels.

Exercise 2: Introduce the charts to the older child who is reading. At this stage you are studying the whole body again. Have the child label all the parts of the body using the blank chart. The child can check his work with the control chart. In the same manner the child can label the parts of the head.

Exercise 3: Compare fingerprints of the older children. Obtain an ink stamp pad. Let each child pick up ink on his right forefinger by pressing the right side of his finger tip against the pad and rolling the finger from right to left. Then have the child roll the inked finger tip from right to left on a small piece of paper. Child then writes his name on the paper. Using a magnifying glass, let the children compare fingerprints and note that no two prints are the same.

Exercise 4: Make a stethoscope from three funnels, T-tube and two long plus one short pieces of rubber or plastic tubing. Let the children take turns listening to heartbeats. Compare the heartbeats when they are quiet with their heartbeats after they have jumped up and down or run around.

Purpose: To familiarize the child with the parts of their body.

Age: 2+ years

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USE OF A MAGNIFYING GLASS (small group presentation)

Material: A variety of magnifying glasses.

Presentation: Invite a child to join you. Carry a magnifying glass to a table. Examine the magnifying glass with the child. Draw the child's attention to the glass and, therefore, its fragile nature. Show how to hold the glass above an object and how to move the glass back and forth until the image is clear. Invite the child to look at their hand and arm through the magnifying glass, examining the skin and hair. Engage the child in conversation regarding what he sees. Encourage the child to look at other objects through the magnifying glass.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Include a magnifying glass on the nature table. Introduce other types of magnification.

Purpose: To show the child the proper use of a magnifying glass which will enable him to study objects at close range.

Age: 2+ years

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USE OF A MAGNET (individual presentation)

Material: Large magnet. Basket of metal and non-metal objects. A felt cloth. Tray.

Presentation: Invite a child to join you and carry the materials to a table. Lay out the felt mat and arrange the materials neatly, in order of use. Introduce the magnet, "This is a magnet, it attracts things. Let's discover which objects it will attract." Remove a metal object from the basket and place it on the felt mat. Hold the magnet close to the object, it will be attracted to the magnet. Invite the child to try. Place it to one side. Repeat the procedure for a non-metal object. It will not be attracted to the magnet. Place it to the other side. Invite the child to continue, sorting the items according to whether or not they are attracted to a magnet. When finished, replace the materials.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Change the objects frequently.

Exercise 2: Make a temporary magnet with an older child. Stroke a large iron rail from end to end with one pole of a strong bar magnet approximately twenty times. Stroke slowly and gently in one direction only, being sure to life your hand up in the air before coming down for another stroke. The nail will become a magnet and able to pick up light metallic objects. Invite the child to make his own magnet.

Note: After a few days the nail will lose its magnetism.

Purpose: To explore the use of a magnet and to discover what it attracts.

Age: 3+ years

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SENSORY BOX (individual presentation)

Material: Assorted objects with sensorial properties for the children to explore, i.e., leather, lambswool, emery board, cork, rubber, twine, etc., kept in an attractive box.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you. Take the material to a mat. Remove one item from the box and place it into a child's hand. Ask, "How does it feel." Encourage the child to feel the object in different ways, i.e., on his cheek, wrist, finger-tips, etc. Let each child have a chance to feel the item and describe the various properties. Give a contrasting object to the children to examine. Encourage the children to explore the properties of the items, i.e., hard, soft, flexible, firm, rough, smooth, shiny, dull, etc. If the children do not know the name of an object, give the name as the child describes the item. When finished replace the materials.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. change the objects frequently.

Exercise 2: Sort the objects according to two contrasting properties, i.e., heavy-light, thick-thin, shiny-dull, etc.

Purpose: To explore different properties.

Age: 3+ years

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MYSTERY BAG (small group presentation)

Material: Fill a cloth bag with different objects which can all fall under the same classification, i.e., paper of various types, string of various types, woven and knitted samples, wooden objects made from different woods, tools, etc.

Presentation: Bring in the mystery bag occasionally. Gather a group of children around a mat. "I have some special objects in here and all of them have something in common. Can you tell me what that is?" Pull the items out, one at a time. Discuss each item, what it is and what its properties are. Once the children have made the classification (give clues as necessary), ask if they can give you any other examples. Leave the mystery bag in the classroom for a few days in order to allow for further exploration.

Exercise 1: As in presentation.

Purpose: To help the child classify and explore different properties.

Age: 3+ years

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SINK AND FLOAT (collective presentation)

Material: Twelve objects, some which float and some which sink, contained in a box. A shallow bowl, jug, drying cloth and tray.

Presentation: Invite a child to join you and have him carry the material to a table. Arrange the materials neatly and in order of use. Have the child almost fill the jug with water and pour the water into the bowl. Select an object. Child identifies it; if unable, give him the name. Give the object to him to feel and explore. Discuss if it is heavy or light, small or large. Gently drop the object into the water. Observe if it floats or sinks. Remove the object. Dry it. Place it to one side. Repeat the procedure for a contrasting object, only this time place it to the other side. Repeat for the remaining objects. Encourage the child to guess whether they will sink or float. Sort the items into the two designated areas. When finished empty, dry and replace the materials.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Change the objects frequently.

Exercise 2: Use plasticine. Gently drop a ball of plasticine into the water, watch it sink, then shape it like a bowl and watch it float. Invite the child to manipulate the plasticine and see if it sinks or floats.

Exercise 3: Compare the buoyancy of salt and fresh water. Fill two identical containers about two-thirds full of water. Add salt to the water in one container, a tablespoon at a time and stirring vigorously until no more salt will dissolve. Get two large ice cubes the same size, put one into each container. Note which ice cube protrudes the most from the water.

Purpose: To encourage the child to explore whether different objects sink or float. To lead the child to simple classification.

Age: 3+ years

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LIVING AND NON-LIVING (individual presentation)

Material: Series of pictures of objects coded on the back. A box with two compartments labelled "Living" and "Non-Living" (optional).

Presentation: Living, in this case, means that it once took food, grew and reproduced. Gather a small group of children together. Explore the classroom deciding whether objects could be classified as living or non-living. According to the interest of the children, you may introduce the picture cards right away or on another day. At a mat or a table, show the children how to sort the pictures into the living and non-living categories. The children can check their work by referring to the coding on the back.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. The children can chart the objects in the environment according to the categories "Living" and "Non-Living".

Purpose: To draw the child's attention to the difference between "living" and "non-living" objects. To lead the child to simple classification.

Age: 4+ years

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RAISING WATER LEVEL WITH WASHERS (small group presentation)

Material: A small bowl, a container of washers or pennies, jug, drying cloth and tray.

Presentation: Invite a child to join you and carry the materials to a table. Arrange the materials neatly and in order of use. Have the child almost fill the jug with water and pour the water into the bowl right up to the top. Tell the child you have a special way to get water out of the bowl without pouring. Pick up one washer and place it inside the bowl, sliding it down the side. Invite the child to continue in the same manner. Watch the water rise over the rim of the bowl forming a bubble-like skin over the glass. As the water level gets higher and higher encourage the child to guess how many more washers will be needed to cause the water to overflow. Continue adding washers until the water overflows when the skin breaks. When finished empty, dry and replace the materials.

Exercise 1: As in presentation.

Exercise 2: Invite a child to join you at a table. Ask the child to fill a small container with water. Lay out a sheet of wax paper. Using an eye dropper, invite the child to drop several drops of water well spaced on to the wax paper. Examine the shape of the drops with the child. Take a small bar of soap and wet it in the container of water. Touch one drop of water and observe what happens. Invite the child to try. When finished, dry and replace materials.

Purpose: To discover that water has a skin. To see that a solid can displace water, causing the water level to rise.

Age: 4+ years

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MIXING COLORS (individual presentation)

Material: Six beakers of the same size, three marked with two levels and three marked with one level, a large beaker or jug, a glass tumbler, tray, three stir sticks, blue, yellow and red food coloring and a drying cloth.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you and carry the material to a table. Have a child fill the large beaker with water. Set up three beakers on the color-coded tray, one on each color. Place the other three beakers, with the two level markings, one between each pair of the beakers already in place. Pour the water from the large beaker into the three beakers that have one level marking. Fill the beakers up to the level marker. Put a drop or two of food coloring corresponding to the color-coding. Use a stir stick to mix the color with the water. Take the beaker with the blue water and pour it into the beaker between it and the yellow one, filling it up to the first level. Take the beaker with the yellow water and add it to the blue, pouring it up to the second level, creating a new color. Repeat the procedure for yellow and red and then red and blue. Admire the new colors. Pour all the colors together into the glass tumbler, creating another color. To clean up, pour out the colored water, rinse and dry the materials. Replace the materials.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Children may record their results by coloring in circles showing which primary colors combine to make the secondary colors.

Purpose: To explore the different colors which are created by combining the primary colors.

Age: 4+ years

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COPPER CLEANING (individual presentation)

Material: Container of tarnished pennies, container for clean pennies, an eye dropper bottle filled with vinegar, a container of salt, small spoon, tweezers, small bowl, drying cloth and tray.

Presentation: Invite a child to join you and carry the materials to a table. Arrange materials neatly, in order of use. Ask the child to put water in the bowl at the sink. At the table add five or six spoonfuls of salt to the water. Using tweezers place a penny in the salt water. Check to see if anything is happening. Then add five or six drops of vinegar into the salt water using the eye dropper. Watch the reaction. Lift the penny out of the bowl with the tweezers. Examine its shiny surface, dry it and place it into the container for clean pennies. Invite the child to try the experiment. When finished empty, rinse and dry the materials before replacing them.

Exercise 1: As in presentation.

Purpose: To discover the reaction of salt and vinegar when applied to tarnished copper.

Age: 4+ years

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PLANT STEMS (individual presentation)

Material: A stalk of celery with leaves still on it, a glass, red food coloring, a spoon, a knife and a tray.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you and carry the materials to the table. Ask one child to put water in the glass. Another child may add food coloring to the water until it is a deep red color, stirring as necessary. With the knife cut off the bottom of the celery stalk and place it in the glass. Place the glass with the celery in a visible area where it can stand overnight. Clean and replace the materials. Observe what has occurred the next morning, how the colored water has moved up the stem. Remove the stalk from the colored water and cut off a section of stalk from the bottom. Note the red color of the hollow tubes in the stem.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. You may also split the stalk and use a different food coloring for each half.

Purpose: To observe that the stem conducts water upward to the leaves.

Age: 4+ years

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WHEELS AND BELTS (small group presentation)

Material: A rectangular block of wood with two nails driven into the middle approximately seven to eight centimetres apart. Two spools the same size, one resting on each nail. A wide rubber band is slipped over both spools. One large and one small spool. A tray.

Presentation: Invite a child to join you and carry the materials to a table. Give one spool a complete turn. Observe the other spool. Invite the child to try. Note that the other spool makes a complete turn, moves at the same speed and turns in the same direction. Now cross the rubber band so that it makes a figure eight. Have the child give one spool a complete turn. This time the driven spool will turn in the opposite direction. Repeat both activities, using a smaller and a larger spool this time. Observe the action of the driven spool. When finished, replace the material.

Exercise 1: As in presentation.

Purpose: To observe how a belt turns a wheel.

Age: 5+ years

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WEATHER (individual presentation)

Material: Thermometer, Beaufort Wind Scale, rain gauge, magnifying glass, two clear plastic cups, ruler and salt.

Presentation:
a) Show a child how to read a thermometer and record the temperature.

b) Track the wind with a small group of children. On a windy day invite the children to "sense" the wind, using their eyes, ears and body. Go to the school yard with a small group of children at the same time each day for a week or two and compare the wind with the Beaufort Wind Chart. Have the children choose the number of the description that best fits the wind and record it. Note how the wind changes. The children may also wish to use a leaf to track the wind. Invite them to hold a large leaf above their head, then drop it. Watch where it goes. Notice how the wind's strength changes the leaf's movement.

c) Measure the amount of rain which has fallen with a small group of children and a rain gauge. Record the amount and compare it to other rainfalls. Encourage the children to predict a rainfall by listening to a weather report and looking for signs in nature (i.e., sky conditions, many flowers close before it rains, smell the air, etc.).

d) Explore the snow. Go outside when it is snowing. Use a magnifying glass to study the snowflakes that land on your sleeve. Compare their patterns. With a small group of children, fill one clear plastic cup with snow. Measure the depth of the snow with a ruler and record it. Bring the snow inside and place it in a visible area until it all melts. Now invite the children to measure the remaining water and record it. Compare the two measurements. On another day invite a small group of children to fill two clear cups with snow and bring them inside. Have a child add about a handful of salt to one container. The children should keep checking to see which cupful of snow melts first.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. Extend the exercises according to the interest of the children.

Purpose: To note daily seasonal weather conditions and the changes that occur.

Age: 5+ years

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HOW TO JUDGE WIND VELOCITY EVAPORATION (small group presentation)

Material: Two shallow dishes, measuring cup, narrow-necked bottle and glass.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you. Have a child put a small amount of water into a shallow dish. Set the dish aside in a warm place. Ask the children to observe the water level in the dish first thing each morning and before they leave in the afternoon.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. You may also use two shallow dishes filled with an equal amount of water. Put one in the warmest place of the classroom and the other in the coolest. Have the children compare the water levels each morning.

Exercise 2: With a small group of children, fill three different containers with an equal amount of water, i.e., shallow dish, glass and narrow-necked bottle. Set all three containers in the same location of the classroom. Each morning pour any water remaining back into the measuring cup, one container at a time. Measure the amount of water that remains and record it. Have the children compare the different amounts.

Purpose: To show how evaporation takes place. To discover that water can change form, from liquid to gas.

Age: 5+ years

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CONDENSATION (small group presentation)

Material: A tin can, ice cubes and a spoon.

Presentation: Invite a small group of children to join you. Have a child add water to a shiny tin can until the can is half filled. Another may add ice cubes to the water and stir. Place the can in a warm spot and observe. Soon a thin film of tiny droplets of water will form on the sides of the can and will gradually form droplets.

Note: This experiment attains the best results when the air is relatively humid.

Exercise 1: As in presentation. You may also wish to look at factors which affect the speed of condensation by repeating the experiment in different conditions, i.e., a cold and warm location, a windy and calm location, a dry and humid location.

Exercise 2: With a small group of children create a miniature water cycle. Boil water in a pot. Fill a frying pan with ice cubes and hold the pan approximately ten centimetres above the pot. A water cycle will be produced as the water vapour from the boiling water is cooled by the cold bottom of the frying pan, causing droplets of water to condense on the bottom of the pan and then drop back into the water.

Purpose: To realize how condensation takes place. To discover that water vapour can change form, from gas to liquid.

Age: 5+ years

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SUGGESTED LAYOUT FOR SCIENCE SHELF

Small box or container with science experiments, task cards or booklets.

Set of small organizer drawers for small items, labelled, for storing: coins, paperclips, toothpicks, straws, magnets, rubber bands, string, marbles, eyedroppers, paper strips, stirring sticks, etc.

Trays a limited number (3 works well) for students to use in gathering supplies.

Tray of apparatus bottles, flasks, jars with tightly fitting lids, test tubes, pitchers, funnels, sponges, bowls, shallow dishes, scissors, etc.

Tray of substances labelled containers of substances such as liquid soap, cooking oil, salt, sugar, pepper, food coloring, vinegar, baking soda, lemon juice, bar soap, etc. Store them in a variety of containers such as shakers, squirt bottles, pump bottles, jars, plastic lemon, etc.

Optional features if the children's trays are not big enough to be the working surfaces, include some small mats to define the work space.

Card holders a small display easel or a board with a slit can help hold the experiment up where the child can read it (and keep it off the table in case of spills).

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